Al Jihad Fil Islam
Subject: jihad in islam
JIHAD IN ISLAM
Anantnag Kashmir . email : firstname.lastname@example.org
Student of M.A. Islamic Studies (Islamic University of Science and Technology,Awantipora)
Jihad in Islam
Markazi Maktaba Islami Publishers
Syed Abul Aala Maududi
Introduction to the book:
"Jihad in Islam" was originally written in Urdu under the title of " Al-Jihad fil- Islam" in 1927 by Maulana Maududi who was the founder of Jamaat-e-Islami,the largest religiopolitical Islamic organisation in South Asia.It was his first regular book.The incident which provided Maulana Maududi an incentive for writing "Jihad in Islam" was the murder of Swami Shardhanand,founder of the Shudhi Movement because the person arrested for this act was a Muslim ,and thus the opponents of Islam got an oppurtunity to propagate false views against Islamic Jihad.Enemies of Islam openly laid accusations against Islam that its teachings make the Muslims bloodthristy and murderers.These views were propagated to a large extent that a person like Mahatma Gandhi got so overwhelmed by this propaganda and he expressed his view that :"Islam came into existence in such an environment that at that time its decisive power was the sword and it is the sword even today".Thus, Maulana Maududi in order to refute such misconceptions against Islam started to write serially about Jihad in Islam in the columns of the newspaper,Al-Jamee'at.After publishing 23-24 numbers,he stopped its publication ;after completing the entire series Maulana Maududi presented it in the form of a book. Maulana Maududi in his book"Jihad in Islam" has presented a comparative study of the objectives and laws of war in Islam with those in other cultures,religions and modern western political system.
Overview of the contents:
Maulana Maududi in the first chapter of his essay discusses the real nature of Islamic Jihad.He says that Islam does not only regard human life inviolable as the all political statutes of the world promulgate but Islam also creates a real reverence and appreciation for human life in the hearts and minds of poeple so that when there is no fear of Criminal Laws peolple still desist from the unlawful killing.Human life will be inviolable as long as it has not been made violable by the way of justice and law because the real requirement is to establish peace and order in the world and annihilation of persecution and anarchy.For this purpose, Islam simultaneously promulgate the inviolability of human life as well as the law of equal retribution because the imposition of law of equal retribution is not the imposition of death rather it restores life to the society by removing the malignant tumour from it and if law of equal retribution isn't imposed along with promulgation of inviolability of life ;it will result in the choas and anarchy intead of peace and repose.After this Maulana writes that Holy Qur'an nowhere has induced its followers towards Jihad by saying that in return you will be granted wealth and dominion of the world rather everywhere only prospects of acquiring the pleasure of Allah is mentioned, thus the purpose of Jihad is not the territorial expansion; on the contrary partake in Jihad is just to please Allah and only for the welfare of people and suppression of the oppression , mischief and tumult.After this Maulana explains the status of Jihad in the structure of civilization and writes that the community which can't safeguard truth and when evil attacks it ,instead of annihilating it gets annihilated ,then for such a community there is no honour in this world ,and its life is worse than death.
Then, Maulana discusses two types of wars i.e., Defensive war and Reformative war.Maulana says that defence is an obligation and then explains the conditions in the light of the Qur'an and the Sunnah for waging defensive war.These conditions are:1.Confronting opression and transgression 2.Protecting the path of truth 3.Punishing treachery and breach of covenants 4.Annihilation of internal enemies 5.Maintenance of internal peace and 6.Defense of oppressed Muslims .After this Maulana put forth the real status of Reformative war and says that in order to obliterate mischief and persecution from the world Reformative war is waged.
After discussing at length the both types of wars,Maulana explains Arabian mode of warfare during the Pre-Islamic Era . Arabs used to take part in wars over cattles,pastures,springs of water,horse-racing and other trivial matters.Motives of such wars were passion for booty,vainglory,revenge.The ways and means adopted by Arabs in such wars were extremely savage e.g., maltreatment of non-combatants and prisoners of war,torture by fire, debasement of deadbody,treachery and persecution of emissaries.Same savage modes of warfare were adopted by Rome and Iran.This was the world when Islam raised the flag of reformation.Islam gave its own concept of war i.e., to eradicate evil and mischief from the earth and purifies the objectives of war.Islam prescribed civilized laws of war e.g., Obedience of Imam,fulfilment of contracts and covenants,rights of neutrals,inviolability of non-combatants,and describes rights of combatants as forbiddance to attack without warning,forbiddance to burn alive,forbiddance to shackle and torture before execution,prohibition to plunder, devastation and disorder,prohibition of mutilation,prohibition to kill prisoners of war and envoys and prohibition of raising din and clamour.Further instructions were given at the time of departure of troops as women,cildren and old should not be killed,monks should not be harassed,places of worship should not be demolished,animals should not be killed,crops should not be burnt down and booty should not be pilfered.Even treatment of conquered people is also discussed by Islam,Zimmies were given rights equal to that of Muslims.
Then, Maulana discusses at length the concept of war in other religions. After discussing the views and teachings of the four main religions of the world(Hinduism,Judaism,Buddhism and Christianity), Maulana concludes that as per Hinduism and Judaism waging war is lawful;but they have allowed it for selfish and self-motivated objectives and desires and they don't distinguish between just and unjust war and give man right to oppress and excess on fellow human beings and on the other hand ,the other two religions,viz.Buddhism and Christianity ,feel that it is not correct to give freedom to human beings to plunder other fellow human beings;but this feeling takes them to the other extreme point.Battling with the concept of war they bagan to battle with human nature itself.The outcome of this is that those people who follow this teaching fall into the deepest pit of regression, subjugation and suppression.Between these two extreme viewpoints,Islam has opened out a moderate and rational route.There is such a complete and fullproof code of lawwith regard to war in Islam that a match of which cannot be found in any other religion or civilization.
Lastly,Maulana discusses concept of war under Modern Civilization. After discussing nature of Western laws of war,their rules and regulations,Maulana concludes that" International Law of war" put forth by West as a law of war is actually not a "law " at all.It is entirely dependent on the consent of the States with regard to its principles and branches and its foundation has been laid down on the mutual agreement of the belligerents.Further,the Western Laws of War are unstable and untrustworthy as ther are in perpetual conflict with the exegencies of war, and these exigencies are always engaged in overpowering them.Most essentially, Western Laws of War lack an ethical aspect.West permits war for territorial conquests, expansion of trade and commerce,acquisition of wealth and power,colonization, plunder and pillage and fulfilment of other bestial wants.Furthermore, West didn't follow Laws of War, which West itself framed ,during first and second World War.
Al-Jihad fil-Islam is a well-researched book which has been acclaimed by both the adherents as well as opponents of Maulana Maududi.He had refuted all the accusations and misconceptions being made against Islamic Jihad in a very comprehensive manner.The topics discussed in this book are as relevant today as they were at the time of its publication.
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